What is Kubernetes?

Kubernetes is an open source container management system used in large-scale enterprises in various vertical industries to perform a mission-critical task. Some of his skills include:

  • Manage container sets
  • Provide tools for deploying applications
  • Scale applications as and when necessary
  • Manage changes to existing containerized applications
  • Helps optimize basic hardware usage under your container
  • Have the application component restart and move on the system as needed

Kubernetes offers much more of the basic framework, allowing users to choose application framework types, languages, monitoring and logging tools, and other tools of their choice.

Kubernetes Architecture: How Does It Work?

Master-Slave Architecture and Component of Kubernetes:

Kubernetes Master:
It is the primary control unit that manages system-wide workloads and communication. Each of its components has a different process that can run on a single master node or multiple master nodes.

Component :

  • Etcd Storage : An open source key-value data store developed by the CoreOS team and is accessible to all nodes in the cluster. Kubernetes uses "Etcd" to store the cluster's configuration data to represent the overall state of the cluster at any time.
  • API-Server : An API server is a centralized management entity that receives REST requests for changes and acts as a frontend to the control set. Moreover, this is the only thing that communicates with the Etcd cluster and ensures that the data is stored in Etcd.
  • Scheduler : Helps plan partitions in various nodes based on resource usage and decides which service to deploy to and where.
  • Controller Manager : Runs a series of different controller operations in the background to edit the shared state of the cluster and perform a routine task. When there are any changes to the service, the controller detects the change and starts working towards the new requested state.

Worker Node :
Bu, also known as Kubernetes or Minion node, includes communication between managing the network between containers such as Docker and the master node by assigning resources to containers on schedule.

  • Kubelet: Kubelet ensures that all containers in the node work and are in a healthy state. Kubelet monitors the condition of a capsule if it is not in the desired state. If a node fails, a replication controller observes this change and starts the panes in another healthy pane.
  • Container : It is the lowest level of microservice placed inside the compartment and requires an external IP address to view the external process.
  • Kube Proxy : Acts as a network proxy and load balancer. In addition, it forwards the request to the correct panes over isolated networks in a cluster.
  • cAdvisor : Each node acts as an assistant responsible for monitoring and collecting data about resource usage and performance criteria.

Advantages of Kubernetes

Portable and Open Source

Kubernetes can run containers in one or more public cloud environments, virtual machines, or lean metals, which means they can be deployed to any infrastructure. What's more, it is compatible across many platforms and makes the multi-cloud strategy highly flexible and usable.

Workload Scalability

  • Horizontal Infrastructure Scaling : Operations are performed at the individual server level to implement horizontal scaling. New servers can be easily added or removed.
  • AutoScaling : Depending on the use of CPU resources or other application metrics, you can change the number of containers running.
  • Manual Scaling : You can manually scale the number of running containers through a command or interface.
  • Replication Controller: The replication controller ensures that the cluster has a specified number of equivalent partitions in a running state. If there are too many panes, the replication controller can remove the extra panes, or vice versa.

High availability

Kubernetes can handle the availability of both applications and infrastructure.

  • State Controls : Kubernetes continuously checks the state of modes and containers to ensure that the application does not fail. Kubernetes offers the possibility of self-healing and automatic replacement in case a capsule collapses due to an error.
  • Traffic Routing and Load Balancing : The Kubernetes load balancer distributes load to multiple loads, allowing you to quickly balance resources during traffic or batch processing.

Designed for Deployment:

Container has the ability to speed up the process of creating, testing, and publishing software, and includes:

  • Automatic Presentation and Feedback : Kubernetes manages the new version and updates for your app without interruption, while also monitoring health during rollout. If any failure occurs during the process, it is automatically withdrawn.
  • Canary Deployment: Kubernetes tests the production of the new deployment and the previous version in parallel, that is, before growing the new deployment and simultaneously scaling the previous deployment.
  • Programming Language and Framework Support : Kubernetes, Java, .NET, Php, Javascript, etc. It supports many of the programming languages and frameworks such as and has also received great support from the development community. If an application has the ability to run in a container, it can also run in Kubernetes.

Kubernetes Security

Kubernetes provides DNS management, resource monitoring, logging, storage regulation, and also treats security as one of the primary things. For example, it ensures that information such as passwords or ssh keys are stored securely in Kubernetes secrets.

Kubernetes and State Containers

Kubernetes StatefulSets provides resources such as volumes, stable network IDs, and sequence directories from 0 to N to deal with the container that is state. Volume is an important feature that allows us to run the state-informed application. The two main types of supported volumes are:

  • Ephermal Storage Volume:
    Ephermal data storage is different from Docker. In Kubernetes, volume is taken into account all containers running within the pane, and data is stored in the container. However, if the panes are killed, the sound is automatically removed.
  • Persistent Storage:
    Here, the data remains for life. When the pane dies or is moved to another node, this data remains until it is deleted by the user.

Real-World Use cases of Kubernetes

  • Pokémon Go — Online multiplayer is one of the popular games that demonstrates the power of Kubernetes. Before its release, this game was reasonably expected to be the most talked about game. However, after its launch, it received 50 times more traffic than expected. Using Kubernetes, Pokémon Go was able to scale high to keep up with the unexpected demand.
  • Pinterest — Pinterest is a very popular social networking platform that has evolved into 1000 microservices and has a variety of tools and platforms. The company wanted to use the fastest production path without worrying developers about infrastructure. The team looked for a container editing platform, such as Kubernetes, to simplify the overall deployment and management of complex infrastructure. After kubernetes deployment was made, the company shortened compilation times and productivity peaked.


Soon, Kubernetes grew into an economic powerhouse. As it offers a variety of benefits, many companies of all sizes strive to develop products and services to meet an ever-increasing need. Kubernetes is capable of working in both public and private clouds, making it one of the favorite tools for businesses working with hybrid clouds. If this continues, we may see more companies investing in Kubernetes and the container management system.


KARABAY A, 2021 . What is Kubernetes ?,


(Accessed March 24, 2021).

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